Fukushima FAQ

What Led to the World-Threatening Problems at Fukushima?

On March 11, 2011, the nuclear reactor complex Fukushima Daiichi, located on the eastern Japanese coast, sustained massive damage from an earthquake and tsunami, resulting in huge and continuing releases of radiation into air, water, and earth. Power loss (including failure of back-up power) led to loss of cooling for radioactive fuel, accompanied by a series of equipment failures, nuclear meltdowns, and releases of tons of radioactive materials that continue today such as plutonium, uranium, iodine-131, cesium-137, and strontium-90. (see also fukushima-update-how-much-threat, meltdown.) In addition to the nonstop continuing radiation releases from Fukushima, and the various critical problems threatening to release massive radiation, Japan is incinerating huge amounts of radioactive debris, and planning to continue through at least March 2014. (see also incinerator workers suffer cardiac arrest.)

The March 11, 2011, disaster spent a week or so as front-page news, and then the media (especially in Japan and in English-speaking countries) put out the word that things were under control at Fukushima — and dropped the crisis reporting, shifting what little coverage ensued to the effects on Japan, how Japan was restarting its affected industries (supposed return to business as usual), articles on what nuclear lessons were to be learned “post-Fukushima”, statements that the U.S./world is so safe from Fukushima radiation that no monitoring is necessary, that okay so the reactor 4 building is buckled and tilted — it’s perfectly safe — and okay so the ocean has 50 million times more radiation than usual — it’s not a problem. Do an internet search for the word “Fukushima” plus the name of any of the standard news outlets — including NPR, BBC, WSJ, NYT, CNN, HuffingtonPost — to see how, after the first week or so, they directed your attention away from the disaster unfolding at Fukushima. Continue reading this FAQ to learn what has really been happening.

Since the Fukushima accident, Tepco (Tokyo Electric Power Company), the Japanese government, and various shady corporate, political, and underworld partners have been wrestling, mostly in private, with an almost impossible array of problems at Fukushima Daiichi, trying, in their fashion, to avert massive disaster on many fronts. Their actions have been colored by self-interest — such as avoiding liability and not wanting to spend money to fix the problems — as well as by callous incompetence and by the requirement that the full extent of the looming disasters be hidden from the public (frequent lies and more lies), for fear of crashing economies worldwide (Tokyo is the third-largest financial power on Earth) — and so as to avoid creating unrest among people facing, or already experiencing, irradiation.

Tepco’s plan for dealing with the ongoing crisis calls for beginning to remove spent fuel in 2014 (or maybe November 2013), and beginning to remove the melted fuel inside the reactors within 10 years or so of the accident, with an estimated 30 to 40 years needed to finish “clean-up“. (see also Tepco status reports.)

Fukushima Daiichi sits on a fault line, and sits directly on the Pacific Ocean coast, protected from tsunamis by only a few bags of rocks. Japan is located in the Ring of Fire and is very seismically active. Numerous earthquakes have occurred in the area of Fukushima Daiichi since March 11, 2011, some of which are thought to have further damaged the facilities. The Wall Street Journal reported in January 2012 that, according to Japanese scientists, seismic activity was picking up a great deal and Tokyo (212 km/131 mi from Fukushima Daiichi) has a 70% probability of being hit by “the big one” by 2016. There is great concern that various Fukushima reactors, especially reactor 4, could not survive another earthquake. In addition, Japan experiences frequent typhoons, with hurricane-force winds and torrential rain (bringing ground liquefaction, landslides, and storm surge). (see also Tepco pumping groundwater.)

The most pressing systemic problem at Fukushima — ongoing since the earthquake and into the foreseeable future — is the need to constantly keep the nuclear fuel cool despite the devastated conditions of the reactors and their cooling systems. Once fuel rods get too hot, they start burning, sending clouds of radioactive ash and dust into the air. Kirk James Murphy, writing on March 15, 2011, explains:

Translation for laypeople: Without enough water to cover them, the fuel rods will keep on igniting, just like trick birthday candles keep re-igniting after we blow them out. Just like trick birthday candles, the only way to put out the fuel rods is to put them under water. That’s why even after Monday’s reactor 4 spent fuel rod fire was quenched, the spent fuel rod pool caught fire again this afternoon.

Unlike trick birthday candles, the spent fuel rods burn hot (3300 degrees F) enough so that the radioactive material in the rods is aerosolized: carried into the atmosphere in clouds of hot smoke. And unlike our trick birthday candles, the spent fuel rods in reactor building 4 are four stories off the ground – just like the other five reactor spent fuel pools at Fukushima. And unlike our trick birthday candles, right now the radioactivity around the spent fuel rods is so high that no one can approach them to put out the fire….

(see also National Geographic video explanation.) As they burn, they release “large amounts of radioactive cesium-137, a very toxic, long-lasting, aggressively penetrating radioactive element with a half-life of thirty years. When cesium-137 it enters the environment, it essentially acts like potassium and is taken up by plants and animals that use potassium. (For the record, that includes you.)” There are an estimated 4,277 metric tons of nuclear fuel at Fukushima Daiichi (24 more times than at Chernobyl), including 66,550 fuel rods in a pool located in a buckled building (reactor 4), suspended 30 meters (100 feet) up in the air. Based on U.S. Energy Department data, Fukushima has an estimated 11,138 fuel assemblies on-site, and each fuel assembly contains about 50 to 80 fuel rods, for a minimum total of more than half a million fuel rods.

According to Robert Alvarez, former Senior Policy Adviser to the Secretary and Deputy Assistant Secretary for National Security and the Environment at the U.S. Department of Energy, “Based on U.S. Energy Department data, assuming a total of 11,138 spent fuel assemblies are being stored at the Dai-Ichi site, nearly all of which is in pools, they contain roughly 336 million curies (~1.2 E+19 Bq) of long-lived radioactivity. About 134 million curies is Cesium-137 — roughly 85 times the amount of Cs-137 released at the Chernobyl accident as estimated by the U.S. National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP)…. Many of our readers might find it difficult to appreciate the actual meaning of the figure, yet we can grasp what 85 times more Cesium-137 than Chernobyl would mean. It would destroy the world environment and our civilization. This is not rocket science, nor does it connect to the pugilistic debate over nuclear power plants. This is an issue of human survival.”

Fukushima’s caretakers have been cooling the fuel rods by pumping in ocean water, which had never been done before anywhere, and which is having some unappealing effects, such as uranium buckyballs that have been rising in sea mists on the U.S. west coast. (see groundwater radiation, groundwater wells, strontium-90 releases.)

Since the March 2011 disaster, Fukushima has experienced repeated and continuing criticalities, meltdowns, releases of radioactive steam and smoke, flashes of light, intense light in reactor sections for long periods of time, failures of cooling systems, fires….

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See also:

^ Risky Repair of Fukushima Could Spill 15,000 Times the Radiation of Hiroshima, Create 85 Chernobyls

^ The Crisis at Fukuhsima's Unit 4 Demands a Global Take-Over

^ The Real Fukushima Danger

^ Reuters: Insight: After disaster, the deadliest part of Japan's nuclear clean-up

^ Nuclear Fuel Response to Reactor Accidents

^ August 27, 2013. Excellent video summary of the Fukushima situation from Thom Harvey's EcoReview. Topics covered: Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Meltdown: What has happened, is happening, and likely will happen, and what options there are to remedy this cataclysmic event. Guests: David Pu’u - CDO Blue Ocean Sciences; Eddie Leung - CEO of Secured Environment; Dr. Andrea Neal CEO – Ocean Lovers Collective; Phone Guest
Arnie Gundersen – Chief Scientist Fairewinds Energy Education.

October 23, 2013.

^ "Experts Warn of Another Disaster Awaiting at Fukushima" video from ABC Australia, June 25, 2012. When another large earthquake hits near Fukushima, it will be "the end of Japan" and a disaster of international dimensions. Transcript.

^ "U.S. Army General: The Whole Northern Hemisphere Is At Risk Of Becoming Largely Uninhabitable", May 25, 2012.

^ 28 Signs that the U.S. West Coast Is Being Fried with Nuclear Radiation from Fukushima

^ Japan’s former Ambassador to Switzerland, Mr. Mitsuhei Murata, warns that Fukushima has the potential to destroy the world, the environment, and our civilization and the nuclear fallout may take 50 years to contain.

^ NASA animation showing jetstream for North America. Higher-level winds and incidence of rainfall are also critical components determining where fallout will come to Earth. The Northern and Southern hemispheres have largely separate jetstreams, so predictions are that the Southern hemisphere will be much safer — although the quantity of radiation expected to be released into the air will also devastate the Southern hemisphere. And then there are radioactive ocean currents and the their radioactive buckyballs to consider, among many other effects. Antarctica is safest.

^ The damaged reactors at ocean-side Fukushima are being "protected" from tsunamis by “a small, makeshift sea wall erected out of bags of rock” according to Oregon Senator Ron Wyden after his visit to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. See more of Senator Wyden's comments.

^ A peer-reviewed report published in the December 2011 edition of the International Journal of Health Services shows 14,000 excess deaths — mostly infants — in the United States in the 14 weeks after the Fukushima meltdowns. The three meltdowns continue to emit large quantities of radiation, unstoppably, and Japan is also incinerating huge quantities of radioactive debris, blanketing the world and especially the West Coast of North America with radiation. Fukushima continues to pour highly radioactive water into the ocean with no end in sight.

^ Dr. Helen Caldicott video, mostly re medical implications of Fukushima, 3-23-12. "We're talking about a disaster of unbound proportions.... They don’t know how to clean it up. It’s not in cold shutdown. The corium — the mass, hundred tons of melted uranium lava — is laying on the floor of the containment vessels. It hasn’t finished and will never finish. I think it means the end of Japan financially."

^ 28 Signs that the U.S. West Coast Is Being Fried with Nuclear Radiation from Fukushima

^ Interview with nuclear engineer. German TV: March 28, 2012. Armageddon if Spent Fuel Pool No. 4 collapses and melts down — Could change the world — Most likely consequence is that reactors 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 get out of control.

^ From How to Survive a Major Nuclear Release: "One of the mantras of radiation protection is 'distance, shielding and time.' This mantra relates to fixed sources that pump out radiation that can't be internalized. An airborne nuclear release, on the other hand, can easily cause radioactive sources to enter the body. Sometimes you'll hear so-called experts say that a 'beta particle' can't hurt you because it can be stopped by the epidermis - your skin. But beta particles that enter your body aren't stoppable - your cellular tissue is not strong enough to block it. So, remember - when it comes to internalized radioactive poisons, you can't safely shield them from decaying within you and irradiating you, nor can you distance your cells from the ionizing energies, nor can you stop or alter 'time' as radiation decays millisecond by millisecond in your body, increasing your cumulative dosage, which in turn increases your chances of cancer and genetic damage. 'Distance, shielding and time' as advice only works with external sources of radiation, not internal ones."

^ Illustration in English and Japanese gives an idea of effects of radioactivity.

^ From summary by Matthew Penney of an article by Nishio Masamichi, radiation treatment specialist and director of Hokkaido Cancer Center, published in Japan's leading business journal Toyo Keizai, June 27, 2011: "The release of data from the expensive SPEEDI system, was delayed until March 23. This delay resulted in unnecessary radiation exposure. 'It is only conceivable that the high rate of radiation released was not reported because of fears of a panic'....

"Former Minister for Internal Affairs Haraguchi Kazuhiro has alleged that radiation monitoring station data was actually three decimal places greater than the numbers released to the public. If this is true, it constitutes a 'national crime', in Nishio’s words. He follows with, 'Giving us the truth once is much more important than saying "hang in there Japan!" a million times'....

"According to Japanese law, the rate of radiation exposure permitted for ordinary citizens is 1 mSv / year. This has been raised to 20 mSv / year in a 'time of crisis'. Such a dramatic increase in permitted exposure is akin to 'taking the lives of the people lightly'. Nishio believes that 20 mSv is too high, especially for children who are far more susceptible to the effects of radiation....

"Even more important than a permitted 20 mSv exposure rate, however, is the lack of adequate provision for measuring internal radiation exposure among the Fukushima population."

^ See this collection of high-quality Fukushima-related photographs.

^ "Where Do I Go If Fukushima Blows?" May 25, 2012. This map shows predicted fallout patterns in a nuclear war between the USSR and USA, so does not reliably predict Fukushima fallout, but may provide some insight as to where relatively safer areas are likely to be. Very generally, the further south, the better.

^ Fukushima-diary.com has many photos of mutated fruits and vegetables in Japan, including this canola plant, posted May 17, 2012.

Harvey Wasserman: "Hold that 'Hot' Fukushima Sushi!", radioactive tuna in California, June 2012.

^ Michel Fernex: "Fukushima: precious time has been lost". June 7, 2012. "In equal doses, external radiation is ten to a hundred times less damaging than chronic internal radiation, which essentially results from the oral absorption of radionuclides. These concentrate in organs like the thymus, the endocrine glands, the spleen, the bone surfaces and the heart....

"Bandajevsky showed in autopsies conducted after Chernobyl, that concentrations of Caesium 137 are twice as high in children’s organs than in those of adults, having lived in the same areas. The highest levels measured in tissue were in the pancreas and thymus of new born children and in breast fed infants (Bandazhevsky, SMW 133: p.488-490, 2003)....

"What genetic damage has been done to the population following the accident at Fukushima? Are the alterations already recorded in the cells of those workers who have exhausted themselves, over the last year, in an effort to reduce the dissemination of radionuclides into the environment. What about people who inhaled radioactive material and ate contaminated food? Has this induced genomic instability? And the children that have been born since, or who will be born to fathers or mothers who have been irradiated. Have they inherited the fragile genomes of their parents? Are they, perhaps, going to be even worse affected than their parents?

"In fact, researchers have been surprised to find that genetic damage, and above all perigenetic damage, which is responsible for genomic instability, to descendants is far worse than to parents; and this risk increases from one generation to the next. R.J.Baker and his colleagues, studying the DNA of genes transmitted from mother voles to their babies [near Cherynobyl], found levels of mutation, from generation to generation, reaching 100 times higher than anything we have previously encountered up to now in the animal kingdom....

"The genetic effects observed in both humans and rodents has led Professor Hillis, at the University of Texas, to conclude in his editorial in the review Nature, 25th April 1996: 'We know today that the mutagenic effect of a nuclear accident can be far more serious than we ever suspected, and the eucaryotic genome can present levels of mutation that, up to now, would not have been considered possible.'"  


^ May 7, 2011. Japanese politician: It's Time to Tell the Truth. Video and transcript.

^ Hiroaki Koide, Kyoto University Nuclear Reactor Laboratory: "Due to the fallout from Fukushima, in the extensive area covering Tohoku and Kanto, the levels of cesium radiation exceed the standard of radiation controlled area (40.000 Bq/m2). The government are aware they abandoned the people in the contaminated areas. At the moment, more than one million people including children are forced to live in the areas. As I reported, some substances (or living beings) that have high concentration of Cesium are scattered as 'micro hot spots' everywhere in these areas." July 12, 2012.

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